Description: Description: Description: Description: Description: methods

 Notice:  None of the methods listed here are under special recommendation by Plantstress.com

 

GENERAL STRESS

 

Check also our High throughput plant phenotyping portal

o   Obtain climatic data for your location

o   Plant growth measurement

o   Root Methods

o   Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation

§  Pollen viability/sterility tests – Item1  ; Item2

o   Analysis of metabolites

o   Hormone Analysis – problems and solutions

o   Chlorophyll determination

o   CHLOROPHYLL FLUORESCENCE – PRINCIPLES AND APPS  (See book)

§  Relations to Stress

§  imaging fluorescence

§  integration with thermography.

§  PhotosynQ – a light portable leaf measurement system

§  An example of application (crop plant).

§  An example of application (Arabidopsis).

§  Check this site for instruments.

o   Practical approaches to plant volatile analysis

o   Ethylene determination in plants

o   Phytohormones: abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid in Arabidopsis

o   Xylem sap collection and extraction to determine abscisic acid

o   Soluble carbohydrates  (SEE also WSC under drought)

o   Proline analysis – The still popular fast method by Bates et al. (1973) – and more recent improvements.

o   SPECTRAL CANOPY SIGNATURES AND REMOTE SENSING FOR ASSESSING CROP STRESS AND PRODUCTIVITY

§  Leaf canopy temperature and its measurement with the infrared thermometer in the field

§  Relations to water indices in soil and plant

§  Relations to yield

§  Equipment examples:  GreenSeeker  ;  Crop-Circle;  Yara-N Sensor

§  NDVI measurement – a practical example from CIMMYT

§  Spectral reflectance for phenotyping “stay-green” (“non senescence”).

§  Thermal imaging  (heat sensing camera) for identifying plant response to drought stress

§  Thermal and spectral imaging of plant stress

§  “FLIR-one” – A thermal imaging attachment for your smart phone (not yet verified for plant work)

o   Plant Image Analysis – a collection of software

o   Wheat Physiological Breeding II: A Field Guide to Wheat Phenotyping. (CIMMYT publication) (Large pdf file).

o   Various Plant Biology Protocols (links on this site)

o   Measuring the greenhouse environment

o   New handbook for standardized measurement of plant functional traits worldwide (via DiverSus – mainly ecology)

o   To appreciate modern advanced instrumentation - See how leaf gas exchange was measured in the field in 1970’s

 

      Using pots in plant research – not so simple

o   The pot experiment – How to avoid common pitfalls.

o   The Art of Growing Plants for Experimental Purpose

o   Managing pot water status – a critique

o   Applying experimental ‘drought’ to pots - the interpretation of results

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DROUGHT STRESS

 

o   Soil moisture methods (review and tests)

o   PLANT WATER STATUS

§  The pressure chamber for plant water status measurement

§  Relative water content (RWC) as a measure of plant water status

§  The pressure-volume curve – an important tool, not for large scale phenotyping

§  Detailed discussion of measurements and their theoretical basis – including more intricate methods such as thermocouple psychrometry

§  See remote sensing methods of plant stress - above

o   A NEW NON-EVASIVE TURGOR RELATED MONITORING OF PLANT WATER STATUS

§  The method

§  Example for wheat leaf

o   The Sap Flow method for measuring transpiration and associated data in trees

o   An electronic potometer for studying plant water use in real time

o   Osmotic adjustment and its measurement

o   Stomatal conductance (an example from CIMMYT; instruments may vary)

o   Rapid colorimetric assay for epicuticular wax – Tested against the classical gravimetric method

o   ‘Stay-green’ laboratory assay under non-stress conditions (sorghum)

o   Using PEG for controlling plant water status in experiments

o   XYLEM VULNERABILITY TO CAVITATION AND EMBOLISM IN WOODY PLANTS

§  Conduits in wood – their measurements and the assessment of hydraulic vulnerability Xylem vulnerability curves

§  More on Xylem vulnerability curves

§  Visualizations of Drought-Induced Embolism

§  How to quantify conduits in wood

§  Methods of measuring Vulnerability to cavitation

o   IMPROVING WHEAT GRAIN FILLING UNDER STRESS BY STEM RESERVE UTILIZATION

§  Water Soluble Carbohydrates (WSC) determination in stems (wheat example from CIMMYT).

§  Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) for quantifying stem carbohydrates

o   THE MANAGED DROUGHT STRESS ENVIRONMENT IN THE FIELD

§  An Australian case for wheat

§  Rainout shelters – some basic principles of design and operation

o   The Drought (Stress) Resistance Index – Estimating drought resistance in terms of yield or biomass

o   C-isotope composition as a measure of intrinsic water-use efficiency

 

SALINITY STRESS

 

o   Measuring soil salinity

o   Salt tolerance protocols; by Bado S. et al. 2016 (open access by IAEA and Springer)

o   Comparing nutrient solution with soil and field screening for tolerance

o   Electro-Magnetic Induction (EMI) to Determine Soil Salinity and Sodicity in Turf Root Zones

o   Screening methods for salinity tolerance: a case study with tetraploid wheat

o   Soluble ions in salt-affected plants

o   Protocols for Pre-Field Screening of Mutants for Salt Tolerance in Rice, Wheat and Barley, 2016 book.

 

HEAT STRESS

 

o   Cell Membrane Stability (CMS) by the electro-conductivity method

o   Chlorophyll content reduction under heat stress – see Leaf chlorophyll

o   Chlorophyll Fluorescence (see under General Stress above)

o   Pollen dysfunction under heat stress (see under General Stress above)

o   High-Throughput Screening of Temperature-Sensitive rice grain a-Amylase

o   Heat tolerance phenotyping in the growth chamber – important issues to consider

 

COLD STRESS

 

o   Freezing tests

o   Cold tolerance tests in temperate cereals

o   Cold tolerance tests in rice

o   Screening methods to identify post-head-emergence frost adaptation in wheat and barley

o   Chlorophyll Fluorescence for chilling stress (see under General Stress above)

o   Pollen dysfunction under chilling stress (see under General Stress above)

 

MINERAL TOXICITY STRESS

 

o   Aluminum resistance screening assay (alfalfa)

o   Aluminum resistance screening assay (pigeon pea)

o   Aluminum resistance screening assay (cereals - review)

o   Evaluation of aluminum tolerance by hematoxylin root staining

o   The Eriochrome cyanine R root staining method

o   Trace metal phytotoxicity in solution culture: a review 

 

MINERAL DEFICIENCY STRESS

 

o   Calculation of nitrogen-use efficiency

o   Handbook of Reference Methods for Plant Analysis, 1998 (classic)

o   Recent developments in fast spectroscopy for plant mineral analysis, 2015

 

WATERLOGGING STRESS

 

o   A Comparison of Screening Methods in Brassica napus L.

o   Adventitious root porosity

o   Measurement of porosity in very small samples of plant tissue

 

OXIDATIVE STRESS

 

o   Fingerprinting Antioxidative Activities in Plants (Contributed by Livia Saleh and Christoph Plieth)

o   Metabolic and Proteomic Markers for Oxidative Stress. New Tools.

o   Oxidative stress and antioxidative systems